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NEW QUESTION 54
Changes to one character in the plain text affect multiple characters in the cipher text, unlike in historical algorithms where each plain text character only affect one cipher text character.
- A. Avalanche
- B. Substitution
- C. Confusion
- D. Diffusion
Diffusion means that if we change a single bit of the plaintext, then (statistically) half of the bits in the ciphertext should change, and similarly, if we change one bit of the ciphertext, then approximately one half of the plaintext bits should change. Since a bit can have only two states, when they are all re-evaluated and changed from one seemingly random position to another, half of the bits will have changed state.
The idea of diffusion is to hide the relationship between the ciphertext and the plain text.
This will make it hard for an attacker who tries to find out the plain text and it increases the redundancy of plain text by spreading it across the rows and columns; it is achieved through transposition of algorithm and it is used by block ciphers only.
Confusion - Confusion means that each binary digit (bit) of the ciphertext should depend on several parts of the key, obscuring the connections between the two.
The property of confusion hides the relationship between the ciphertext and the key.
This property makes it difficult to find the key from the ciphertext and if a single bit in a key is changed, the calculation of the values of most or all of the bits in the ciphertext will be affected.
Confusion increases the ambiguity of ciphertext and it is used by both block and stream ciphers.
Avalanche - the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext.
Substitution - method of encrypting by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. The receiver deciphers the text by performing the inverse substitution.
NEW QUESTION 55
What is a TGS?
- A. The server that escrows keys
- B. A protocol for encryption
- C. The server that grants Kerberos tickets
- D. A protocol for key exchange
The server that grants Kerberos tickets
The client authenticates itself to the Authentication Server (AS) which forwards the username to a key distribution center (KDC). The KDC issues a ticket-granting ticket (TGT), which is time stamped and encrypts it using the ticket-granting service's (TGS) secret key and returns the encrypted result to the user's workstation. This is done infrequently, typically at user logon; the TGT expires at some point although it may be transparently renewed by the user's session manager while they are logged in.
NEW QUESTION 56
A real time protocol for verifying certificates (and a newer method than CRL).
- A. Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
- B. Registration Authority (RA)
- C. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
- D. Server-based Certificate Validation Protocol (SCVP)
Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP)
The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an Internet protocol used for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate. It is described in RFC 6960 and is on the Internet standards track. It was created as an alternative to certificate revocation lists (CRL), specifically addressing certain problems associated with using CRLs in a public key infrastructure (PKI).
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) - set of roles, policies, hardware, software and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption. The purpose of a PKI is to facilitate the secure electronic transfer of information for a range of network activities such as e-commerce, internet banking and confidential email. It is required for activities where simple passwords are an inadequate authentication method and more rigorous proof is required to confirm the identity of the parties involved in the communication and to validate the information being transferred.
Registration Authority (RA) - component of PKI that validates the identity of an entity requesting a digital certificate.
Server-based Certificate Validation Protocol (SCVP) - Internet protocol for determining the path between an X.509 digital certificate and a trusted root (Delegated Path Discovery) and the validation of that path (Delegated Path Validation) according to a particular validation policy.
NEW QUESTION 57
A cryptanalysis success where the attacker deduces the secret key.
- A. Total Break
- B. Shannon's Entropy
- C. Avalanche effect
- D. Information Deduction
The results of cryptanalysis can also vary in usefulness. For example, cryptographer Lars Knudsen (1998) classified various types of attack on block ciphers according to the amount and quality of secret information that was discovered:
Total break - the attacker deduces the secret key.
Global deduction - the attacker discovers a functionally equivalent algorithm for encryption and decryption, but without learning the key.
Instance (local) deduction - the attacker discovers additional plaintexts (or ciphertexts) not previously known.
Information deduction - the attacker gains some Shannon information about plaintexts (or ciphertexts) not previously known.
Distinguishing algorithm - the attacker can distinguish the cipher from a random permutation.
Shannon's Entropy - average level of "information", "surprise", or "uncertainty" inherent in the variable's possible outcomes. The concept of information entropy was introduced by Claude Shannon in his 1948 paper "A Mathematical Theory of Communication".
Avalanche effect - the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext.
NEW QUESTION 58
Message hidden in unrelated text. Sender and receiver have pre-arranged to use a pattern to remove certain letters from the message which leaves only the true message behind.
- A. Vigenere Cipher
- B. Playfair Cipher
- C. Null Ciphers
- D. Caesar Cipher
A null cipher, also known as concealment cipher, is an ancient form of encryption where the plaintext is mixed with a large amount of non-cipher material. Today it is regarded as a simple form of steganography, which can be used to hide ciphertext.
Caesar Cipher - Monoalphabetic cipher where letters are shifted one or more letters in either direction. The method is named after Julius Caesar, who used it in his private correspondence.
Vigenere - method of encrypting alphabetic text by using a series of interwoven Caesar ciphers, based on the letters of a keyword. It employs a form of polyalphabetic substitution.
Playfair Cipher - manual symmetric encryption technique and was the first literal digram substitution cipher. The scheme was invented in 1854 by Charles Wheatstone, but bears the name of Lord Playfair for promoting its use.
NEW QUESTION 59
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