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NEW QUESTION 31
Which of the following are among five 'pillars' of information assurance?
1. Recovery plan
- A. 1 and 4 only
- B. 2 and 3 only
- C. 3 and 4 only
- D. 1 and 2 only
Information Assurance (IA)
Information Assurance (IA) is the practice of managing information-related risks and the steps involved to protect information systems such as computer and network systems. The IA transformation is a partnership that stretches across the Department of Defense (DoD), Office of National Intelligence, Committee on National Security Systems, National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST), and the Office of Management and Budget.
The US Government's definition of information assurance is:
"measures that protect and defend information and information systems by ensuring their availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and non-repudiation. These measures include providing for restoration of information systems by incorporating protection, detection, and reaction capabilities." Information Assurance (IA) is essentially protecting information systems, and is often associated with the following five pillars:
The following pillars can be applied in a variety of ways, depending on the sensitivity of the information, or information systems within your organization. Currently, these five pillars are used at the heart of the US Governments ability to conduct safe and secure operations in a global environment.
Integrity involves assurance that all information systems are protected and not tampered with. IA aims to maintain integrity through means such as anti-virus software on all computer system, and ensuring all staff with access to know how to appropriately use their systems to minimize malware, or viruses entering information systems.
Availability simply means those who need access to information, are allowed to access it. Information should be available to only those who are aware of the risks associated with information systems.
Authentication involves ensuring those who have access to information, are who they say they are. Ways of improving authentication involve methods such as two-factor authentication, strong passwords, bio-metrics and other devices. Authentication may also be used to not only identify users, but also other devices.
IA involves the confidentiality of information, meaning only those with authorization may view certain data. This step is closely mirrored by the six data processing principles of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), where by personal data must be processed in a secure manner "using appropriate technical and organizational measures" ("integrity and confidentiality").
The final pillar simply means someone with access to your organizations information system cannot deny having completed an action within the system, as there should be methods in place to prove that they did make said action.
- What is Information Assurance (IA)?
- CIPS study guide page 99-100
LO 2, AC 2.1
NEW QUESTION 32
Which of the following are key features of standard terms and conditions? Select TWO that apply
- A. Non-disclosure
- B. Designed to be used in repetitive transactions
- C. Specific to each purchase order
- D. Standard terms always comply with implied terms
- E. Non-negotiable
The key features, advantages and disadvantages of standard terms are summarised below:
- Form: Concise, generic and designed to be attached to purchase or sales orders
- Ineffective terms: may be replaced by implied terms or national legal code rules, or subject to court 'balance of interest' judgement.
- Advantages: Basic contractual protection for most common circumstances; Avoid having to create new contract for repeat business.
- User friendly
- Usage: Low value, low risk, repetitive transactions
- Coverage: Definitions, relationship to other contracts, formation of the contract, order of precedence, price, invoicing and payment, specification, legal compliance, warrantee and liability, ownership and risk, intellectual property, data management and ethics.
- Disadvantages: Does not allow for specific circumstances; Risk for creating battle of the forms; Can create contractual uncertainty if used with purchase orders under call-off contracts.
LO 3, AC 3.1
NEW QUESTION 33
Cleveland Insurance (Cleveland) offers a range of insurance services. The main software used in the call centre is a customer relationship management (CRM) system. Cleveland perceived an urgent need to replace the existing CRM system to deal with the increasing number of customers and services.
Urgent Digital Ltd (Digital) is one of the bidders of Cleveland's ITT. Its bid team is led by Hank Irvine, its technical director. Hank realises that winning the Cleveland contract (valued at approximately £50M) will enhance his career. During discussions with Cleveland, Hank offers certain assurances regarding timescales for the project. He has not carried out any investigations into the viability of the timescales. Hank has little idea whether the timescales can be met.
Cleveland decides that Digital's bid meets with its requirements, especially given the assurances in timescale offered by Hank, and decides to proceed with it, subject to a formal contract. Eventually, a formal contract is signed by both parties. The initial assurances given by Hank about the timing of the project are never going to be achieved and are at best grossly exaggerated.
Hank's pre-contractual assurance is most likely to be an example of which of the following?
- A. Inaccuracy in communication
- B. Threat
- C. Fraudulent misrepresentation
- D. Initial impossibility
Hank's pre-contractual assurances may amount to misrepresentation. Fraudulent misrepresentation is a strong possibility since Hank had carried out no investigations into the viability of the project timescales. This could amount to recklessness in using information without taking any steps to see if it is true or not.
The scenario above was constructed based on the case BSkyB v EDS, a famous case in IT sector.
LO 1, AC 1.2
NEW QUESTION 34
Carillion Ltd is a major construction contractor in the UK. The company commits to continuous improvement and sets out a performance management program that is integrated across the organisational, individual, and supplier levels. To ensure that the suppliers acknowledge the program, every time negotiating the contract terms with suppliers, the procurement team of Carillion appends a performance management framework to the draft document as a schedule. Is the action of procurement team appropriate?
- A. No, because the framework will increase the complexity of the contract
- B. Yes, because the framework should have legal standing as a part of contract
- C. No, because the performance management should be solely developed by suppliers
- D. Yes, because Carillion wants to implement early supplier involvement
Performance management framework often consists of KPIs, targets and consequences that arise from achieved scores. To ensure that the framework has binding effect on contracting parties, it should be developed, appended to the main contract document and agreed by both parties. So the answer should be "Yes, because the framework should have legal standing as a part of contract".
LO 1, AC 1.1
NEW QUESTION 35
Which of the following best defines an 'express' term in general contract arrangements?
- A. It is clearly agreed between the parties, and is virtually always written down in the contract
- B. It is a standard set of terms and conditions published by CIPS
- C. It is the term that is added to the contract by the law or based upon the facts of the case.
- D. It is not necessarily discussed by the parties, but nonetheless forms part of the contract
Express terms are the terms of the agreement which are expressly agreed between the parties. Ideally, they will be written down in a contract between the parties but where the contract is agreed verbally, they will be the terms discussed and agreed between the parties.
Implied terms are terms implied into the contract by the courts. They are not expressly set out in the contract but are taken to be as effective as if they were and as if they had been included from day one of the contract. The express terms and any implied terms together create the legally binding obligations on the parties.
- Contracts: Express and Implied Terms
- CIPS study guide 126-132
LO 3, AC 3.1
NEW QUESTION 36